Parkinson

Parkinson's

Parkinson's is a chronic condition that primarily affects movement. It is caused by the breakdown of brain cells that create a substance called dopamine. Dopamine acts as a chemical messenger to the parts of the brain that control movement. Lack of sufficient dopamine causes the typical Parkinson's symptoms of tremor, slow movement, stiffness, and problems with balance and walking.

AFTER DIAGNOSIS

Parkinson's diagnosis is one of many challenges that you have faced and will face throughout your
life. Please use this information to help you take charge, and live a full, meaningful, and joyful life with Parkinson's.

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Keep Moving

Exercise improves overall health and well-being for everyone, but it has special benefits for people with Parkinson's. A regular program of moderate exercise
can help control your symptoms, help you continue to enjoy your daily activities, and enhance your comfort, mobility, and quality of life.

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Flexibility Exercise

Exercises designed to improve flexibility involve moving your trunk, arms or legs to a position where you begin to feel slight tension or pulling. This pull is the soft tissues (muscles, tendons, ligaments and joint structures) telling you they've reached the limit of their comfort zone.

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DEMENTIA WITH LEWY BODIES (INCLUDING PARKINSON'S DISEASE DEMENTIA)

Dementia with Lewy bodies is a neurodegenerative disease of the brain characterized clinically by dementia, visual hallucinations, and Parkinsonism, and characterized pathologically by Lewy body
formation and abnormal alpha-synuclein metabolism.

Neurodegenerative Of The BRAIN

Problems in Parkinsonism


DEMENTIA WITH LEWY BODIES (INCLUDING PARKINSON'S DISEASE DEMENTIA)

Definition:

Dementia with Lewy bodies is a neurodegenerative disease of the brain characterized clinically by dementia, visual hallucinations, and Parkinsonism, and characterized pathologically by Lewy body formation and abnormal alpha-synuclein metabolism.

Prevalence:
Parkinson's disease dementia is an older term used for dementia with Lewy bodies when extrapyramidal motor features are present for more than a year prior to the onset of dementia. Autopsy studies have suggested that dementia with Lewy bodies
accounts for up to 20% of cases of dementia, either by itself or in combination with other disorders.

Genetic risk:
There are familial cases of dementia with Lewy bodies related to mutations or repeats of the alpha-synuclein gene located on
chromosome. Most patients with dementia with Lewy bodies, however, do not show abnormalities of this gene.

Cognitive and other symptoms:

  • Impairment in attention, executive function, and visuospatial ability are often prominent. Memory impairment may or may not be prominent initially.
  • In patients who also have Alzheimer's pathology, memory and word-finding deficits are prominent as well.
  • Sleep disturbances are common in dementia with Lewy bodies, leading to disrupted circadian rhythm, fluctuating levels of attention and alertness, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

Diagnostic criteria:
Dementia with Lewy bodies should be suspected in any patient with dementia who has well-formed visual hallucinations of people and animals and/or Parkinsonism.

Criteria: essential for a diagnosis is dementia.

Core features (two are sufficient) include:

  • fluctuating cognition (pronounced variations in attention and alertness)
  • visual hallucinations (recurrent, well formed, detailed, of people and/or animals, often initially present around transitions between sleep and wake)
  • spontaneous features of Parkinsonism (i.e., Parkinsonism not related to medications).

 

AFTER DIAGNOSIS:

Parkinson's diagnosis is one of many challenges that you have faced and will face throughout your life. Please use this brochure to help you take heart, take charge, and live a full, meaningful, and joyful life with Parkinson's.