Helping The Patient

Understanding your risk of heart disease or stroke

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Understanding your risk of heart disease or stroke;A high level of LDL (bad) cholesterol may increase your risk of heart disease and stroke. This is because high levels of LDL cholesterol can build up in the walls of your arteries, creating plaque. The plaque can narrow your arteries, making them less flexible and reducing blood flow. This can lead to artery damage, heart disease, and stroke.

Symptoms of high cholesterol:

You may not know that you have high cholesterol because there are no symptoms. The only way to know if you have high cholesterol is to have a blood test to check your cholesterol levels. This will allow your health care provider to help you manage your high cholesterol, which can lead to artery damage, heart disease, and stroke.

Risk factors for heart disease:

You CAN change certain risk factors for heart disease: *High LDL cholesterol * High blood pressure *Diabetes *Being overweight *Smoking tobacco *Stress *Not being active *You CANNOT change certain risk factors for heart disease: Family history Increasing age Gender

Reaching cholesterol goal: Your health care provider will work with you to determine your cholesterol goal This goal will be based on your current and past medical history and any risk factors you may have for heart disease. Your health care provider will monitor your cholesterol level to help you reach your goal. You can use the information below to compare your cholesterol levels with recommended cholesterol goals,*

LDL (bad) cholesterol level: • A higher level of LDL cholesterol is associated with a higher risk of heart disease and stroke. You can compare your LDL cholesterol level with recommended LDL cholesterol goals listed below: • An LDL cholesterol level of less than 130 mg/dL is recommended if you have 2 or more risk factors for heart disease. • An LDL cholesterol level of less than 100 mg/dL is recommended if you have heart disease or diabetes. An LDL level of less than 70 mg/dL may be a reasonable option for some patients. Consult with your health care provider about your cholesterol goal.

HDL (good) cholesterol level: An HDL cholesterol level of 60 mg/dL or more is considered "high" and is associated with a lower risk of heart disease and stroke. An HDL cholesterol level of less than 40 mg/dL is considered "low" and is associated with a higher risk of heart disease.

Total cholesterol level: A total cholesterol level of less than 200 mg/dL is considered "desirable."

Triglyceride level: A triglyceride level of less than 150 mg/dL is considered "normal." Talk to your health care provider about your risk factors for heart disease and reaching your LDL cholesterol goal.

Understanding cholesterol: Cholesterol is a soft, fat-like substance that is naturally found in all cells of your body. In order to function normally, your body needs to have cholesterol. However, too much cholesterol in your blood can increase your risk of heart disease.

Cholesterol comes from two main sources:

- Family History: Cholesterol in your blood comes from the food you eat and the cholesterol produced naturally in your body, based on your family history. That's why even if you are watching what you eat and exercising regularly, you may still have high cholesterol.

- LDL cholesterol: Cholesterol; The types of fats in your blood Your health care provider will measure certain types of fats that are found in your blood:

- Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is known as "bad" cholesterol because it can build up in the walls of your arteries and form plaque (plak).

HDL CHOLESTEROL:

• High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is known as "good" cholesterol because it carries bad cholesterol away from artery walls.  • Triglycerides are used by your body as a source of energy. High levels of triglycerides are unhealthy. Your health care provider may also measure your total cholesterol level, which measures all the cholesterol in your blood. Artery wall Plaque (cholesterol - buildup)

UNDERSTANDING your RISK of heart disease or stroke;

A high level of IDL (bad) cholesterol may increase your risk of heart disease and stroke. This is because high levels of IDL cholesterol can build up in the walls of your arteries, creating plaque. The plaque can narrow your arteries, making them less flexible and reducing blood flow. This can lead to artery damage, heart disease, and stroke. Symptoms of high cholesterol...You may not know that you have high cholesterol because there are no symptoms. The only way to know if you have high cholesterol is to have a blood test to check your cholesterol levels. This will allow your health care provider to help you manage your high cholesterol, which can lead to artery damage, heart disease, and stroke.

Risk factors for heart disease:

You CAN change certain risk factors for heart disease: *High IDL cholesterol *High blood pressure *Diabetes *Being overweight *Smoking tobacco * Stress *NOT Being Active.

You CANNOT change certain risk factors for heart disease: *Family history. *Increasing age. *Gender. Reaching cholesterol goals: *Your health care provider will work with you to determine your cholesterol goal.  *You may have for heart disease. *Your health care provider will monitor your cholesterol level to help you reach your goal. You can use the information below to compare your cholesterol levels with recommended

This goal will be based on your current and past medical history and any risk factors

 

LDL (bad) cholesterol level: A higher level of LDL cholesterol is associated with a higher risk of heart disease and stroke. You can compare your LDL cholesterol level with recommended LDL cholesterol goals listed below: • An LDL cholesterol level of less than 130 mg/dL is recommended if you have 2 or more risk factors for heart disease. • An LDL cholesterol level of less than 100 mg/dL is recommended if you have heart disease or diabetes. An LDL level of less than 70 mg/dL may be a reasonable option for some patients. Consult with your health care provider about your cholesterol goal.

HDL (good) cholesterol level: An HDL cholesterol level of 60 mg/dL or more is considered "high" and is associated with a lower risk of heart disease and stroke. An HDL cholesterol level of less than 40 mg/dL is consider desiase.

Total cholesterol level: A total cholesterol level of less than 200 mg/dL is considered "desirable."

Triglyceride level: A triglyceride level of less than 150 mg/dL is considered "normal."

Talk to your health care provider about your risk factors for heart disease and reaching your LDL cholesterol goal.

Developing a plan to manage your high cholesterol: If you have high cholesterol, you and your health care provider will need to develop a plan to manage your high cholesterol. This plan can include lifestyle changes and the use of medicines to reduce your high cholesterol. Change behavior many people may avoid the future problems that come from high cholesterol by changing their behavior. Below is a list of tips to help you get started.

Eat rarely OR Eat a healthy diet?

• Eat less saturated fats (usually found in cheese, fatty meat, milk, and eggs).

• A healthy diet for you may include:

— Keeping total fat intake between 25% and 35% of total calories.

— Eating 20 to 30 grams (g) of fiber per day.

— Lowering your total cholesterol intake to less than 200 milligrams (mg) per day.

Stop smoking:

• It is important to stop smoking today.

• Smoking damages your heart, lungs, arteries, and many other parts of your body.

Maintain a healthy weight:

• Eating a healthy diet and exercising regularly are 2 keys to staying at a healthy weight.

 

Exercise regularly;

• Try to engage in regular exercise, which includes:

—  30 minutes of moderate - intensity exercise on most days.

—  Resistance training 3 times per week.

 

• Do not begin any exercise program without talking to your health care provider first.

 

Regular checkups can help you and your health care provider manage your cholesterol and prevent future health problems.

Get regular checkups:

Because there are no symptoms of high cholesterol, it is important to get regular checkups by your health care provider.At each visit my health care provider will: • Check my blood pressure and weight. • Discuss my cholesterol management plan.

I will have my: • Cholesterol levels checked at least once a year. The list provided is a general visit schedule. Talk to your health care provider to understand your specific checkup and testing needs.

Taking medicines for high cholesterol: Along with making lifestyle changes, your health care provider may prescribe medicines to help you reach your cholesterol goals. Tell your health care provider about any prescription and over-the-counter (natural and herbal) medicines that you are taking or plan to take. Some medicines may affect how your cholesterol medicines work.

Tips for taking your medicines:

Some tips for taking medicine include: •  Take your medicine at the same time each day. •  Know what the medicine is used to treat, and how and when you should take it. •  Do not stop taking any medicine without talking to your health care provider.

More information:

For more information on the topics discussed in this booklet, contact the organizations listed below;

Cholesterol:

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. www.nhlbi.nih.gov*  1-301-592-8573

American Heart Association  www.americanheart.org*             1-800-242-8721

Exercise:

US Department of Health

and Human Services

www.health.gov •             1-877-696-6775

Stop smoking

American Lung Association

www.lungusa.org •             1-800-548-8252

Diabetes

American Diabetes Association

www.diabetes.org •             1-800-342-2383

National Diabetes Information

Clearinghouse

www.diabetes.niddk.nih.gov •             1-800-860-8747

National Diabetes Education Program

www.ndep.nih.gov •             1-888-693-6337

Healthy eating

American Dietetic Association

www.eatright.org •             1-800-877-1600

 

Managing your cholesterol:

Why is it important to manage your cholesterol?

• When you have diabetes, your risk of heart attack and stroke is higher than it is for people who do not have diabetes.

• Having high cholesterol Increases your heart attack and stroke risk even more.

• This risk can be lowered with lifestyle changes and medications to manage your cholesterol.

• It is important to talk to your health care provider about what you can do today to lower these risks. You may be familiar with having your blood glucose (sugar) or AlC level checked regularly.It is also important to have your cholesterol checked regularly.

• Below is a chart that shows the IDL cholesterol goals for people with diabetes.

LDL Cholesterol Goals:

Less than 70 mg/dL

*Goal for people with diabetes who do not have heart disease: Less than 100 mg/dL

*Optional goal for people with diabetes and heart disease: Less than 70 mg/dL

Know your cholesterol numbers:

*Write down your numbers below and talk to your health care provider to set the right goal for you.

My LDL (bad) cholesterol is____mg/dL.

My HDL (good) cholesterol is____mg/dL.

My triglyceride level is____mg/dL.

My IDL goal is____mg/dL.

*Even slightly elevated levels of LDL (bad) cholesterol can be dangerous for people with diabetes.

DIABETES:

Managing your diabetes;

The ABCs of diabetes...If you have diabetes, you need to know your ABCs. A stands for the AlC test. It shows what your blood glucose has been over the past 3 months. The goal for many people is below 7. Less strict

AlC goals may be appropriate for other patients, especially those with a history of low blood sugar.

B stands for blood pressure. The goal for most people with diabetes is below 130/80 mmHg.

C stands for cholesterol, which we have gone into detail in this brochure (see pages 3 and 4).

*Be sure to talk to your health care provider about managing each of the ABCs as part of your

diabetes management plan.

Change behavior:

Many people may avoid the long-term problems of diabetes by changing their behavior. Below is a list of suggestions to help you get started.

Eat a healthy diet:

•  Saturated fats (typically found in milk, meat, eggs, and cheese) should be limited to less than 7% of total calories.

• Minimize intake of trans fat.

• A healthy diet for you may include:

—  Keeping total fat intake between

25% and 35% of total calories.

— Eating 20 g to 30 g of fiber per day.

— Lowering total cholesterol intake to less than 200 mg per day.

Stop smoking:

•  It is important to stop smoking today.

•  Smoking damages your heart, lungs, arteries, and many other parts of your body. Maintain a healthy weight

• Eating a healthy diet and exercising regularly are 2 keys to maintaining a healthy weight.

Exercise regularly:

• Try to engage in regular exercise, which includes:

—  30 minutes of moderate intensity exercise on most days.

—  Resistance training 3 times per week.

• Do not begin any exercise program without talking to your health care provider first.

Get regular checkups:

It is important to get regular checkups by your health care providers. Your health care team maybe made up of many different doctors and nurses, a diabetes educator, and a nutritionist Below is a brief list of checkups that you should schedule.

I will have my:

•  Cholesterol levels checked at least 1 time per year.

•  Eyes checked by an eye doctor and my feet checked by a foot doctor 1 time per year.

•  Teeth and gums checked by a dentist 1 time per year.

•  A1C level checked at least 2 times per year.

•  Urine and blood checked at least 1 time per year.

At each visit my health care provider wlll:

• Check my blood pressure and weight.

• Discuss my diabetes management plan.

The list provided is a general visit schedule. More frequent visits may be necessary. Talk to your health care providers to understand your specific checkup or testing needs.

More information:

For more information on the topics discussed in this booklet, contact the organizations listed below.

Diabetes American Diabetes Association diabetes.org • 1-800-342-2383

National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse diabetes.niddk.nih.gov • 1-800-860-8747

National Diabetes Education Program ndep.nih.gov • 1-888-693-6337

Healthy eating American Dietetic Association eatright.org • 1-800-877-1600

Cholesterol National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute nhlbi.nih.gov • 1-301-592-8573

American Heart Association americanheart.org •  1-800-242-8721

Exercise US Department of Health and Human Services health.gov •   1-877-696-6775

Stop smoking American Lung Association lungusa.org •  1-800-548-8252